The climate-induced changes in marine fishery resources in South Korea have been a big concern over the last decades. The climate regime shift has led to not only a change in the dominant fishery resources, but also a decline in fishery landings in several species. The habitat suitability index (HSI) has been widely used to detect and forecast fishing ground formation. In this study, the catch data of the Todarodes pacificus (Japanese Common Squid) and satellite-derived environmental parameters were used to estimate the HSI for the T. pacificus around South Korea. More than 80% of the total catch was found in regions with a sea surface temperature (SST) of 14.91–27.26 °C, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) of 0.05–0.20 m, chlorophyll-a of 0.32–1.35 mg m-3, and primary production of 480.41–850.18 mg C m-2 d-1. Based on these results, the HSI model for T. pacificus was derived. A strong positive relationship (R2 = 0.9260) was found between the HSI and the fishery landings. The climatological monthly mean HSI from 2002 to 2016 showed several hotspots, coinciding with the spawning and feeding grounds of T. pacificus. This outcome implies that our estimated HSI can yield a reliable prediction of the fishing ground for T. pacificus around South Korea. Furthermore, the approach with the simple HSI model used in this study can be applied elsewhere, and will help us to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of fishery resources.