With the increase of heavy traffic transportation, it is meaningful to study the performance change of pavements under heavy loads. To study the development of asphalt mixture under heavy load, an AC-13 asphalt mixture was prepared and a large-sized specimen wheel tracking test was conducted. Samples from different periods were extracted to research the influence of the cumulative load times under heavy load on asphalt mixtures. It was found that there were different variation rules on the performance of the asphalt mixture under different load conditions. The failure time on skid resistance was predicted by the fitting curve. Heavy load conditions would greatly speed up the failure of skid resistance. According to the sieving results, the stable gradation of 10–16 mm, 5–10 mm, 3–5 mm, and 0–3 mm after heavy load grinding was 10%, 37%, 23%, and 30%. It was found that the content of 10–16 mm had a significant correlation with the permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture, while there were no significant correlation between aggregate and skid resistance.