Mineral bone cements were actually not developed for their application as bone-bonding agents, but as bone void fillers. In particular, calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are considered to be unsuitable for that application, particularly under moist conditions. Here, we showed the ex vivo ability of different magnesium phosphate cements (MPC) to adhere on bovine cortical bone substrates. The cements were obtained from a mixture of farringtonite (Mg3(PO4)2) with different amounts of phytic acid (C6H18O24P6, inositol hexaphosphate, IP6), whereas cement setting occurred by a chelation reaction between Mg2+ ions and IP6. We were able to show that cements with 25% IP6 and a powder-to-liquid ratio (PLR) of 2.0 g/mL resulted in shear strengths of 0.81 ± 0.12 MPa on bone even after 7 d storage in aqueous conditions. The samples showed a mixed adhesive–cohesive failure with cement residues on the bone surface as indicated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The presented material demonstrated appropriate bonding characteristics, which could enable a broadening of the mineral bone cements’ application field to bone adhesives.