Although acute inflammatory responses are host-protective and generally self-limited, unresolved and delayed resolution of acute inflammation can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation. The mechanism of pain induction under inflammatory conditions has been studied extensively; however, the mechanism of pain resolution is not fully understood. The resolution of inflammation is a biosynthetically active process, involving specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In particular, maresins (MaRs) are synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by macrophages and have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving capacities as well as tissue regenerating and pain-relieving properties. A new class of macrophage-derived molecules—MaR conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTRs)—has been reported to regulate phagocytosis and the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue. Macrophages not only participate in the biosynthesis of SPMs, but also play an important role in phagocytosis. They exhibit different phenotypes categorized as proinflammatory M1-like phenotypes and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes that mediate both harmful and protective functions, respectively. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying macrophage functions and phenotypic changes have not yet been fully established. Recent studies report that MaRs help resolve inflammatory pain by enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and shifting cytokine release to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Consequently, this review elucidated the characteristics of MaRs and macrophages, focusing on the potent action of MaRs to enhance the M2 macrophage phenotype profiles that possess the ability to alleviate inflammatory pain.