As the prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia increases, the comorbidities of gout and hyperuricemia have become a public health burden. In particular, risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related complications are increasing. However, a few guidelines exist for the management of hyperuricemia. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association of serum uric acid with CVD risk in the general population of Korean adults. We examined cross-sectional data from the first and second years of the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2017. Among 16,277 participants, 8781 were analyzed. We estimated the CVD risk using a 10-year CVD risk score prediction formula. There was a significant association of serum uric acid with 10-year CVD risk scores after adjusting for physical activity, body mass index, serum creatinine, and alcohol consumption in both sexes (p < 0.001). In the fitted fractional polynomial model, an approximate U-shaped association between serum uric acid levels and 10-year CVD risk scores was found in men. At the serum uric acid level of 6.9 mg/dL, the CVD risk was lowest. An approximate J-shaped association between serum uric acid levels and 10-year CVD risk scores was found in women. Our study showed that hyperuricemia was associated with an increased CVD risk. Hypouricemia was also associated with an increased CVD risk in men. We, therefore, recommend proper management of uric acid levels in the general population to reduce CVD risks.