High-resolution range profile (HRRP) has attracted intensive attention from radar community because it is easy to acquire and analyze. However, most of the conventional algorithms require the prior information of targets, and they cannot process a large number of samples in real time. In this paper, a novel HRRP recognition method is proposed to classify unlabeled samples automatically where the number of categories is unknown. Firstly, with the preprocessing of HRRPs, we adopt principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction of data. Afterwards, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) with Barnes–Hut approximation is conducted for the visualization of high-dimensional data. It proves to reduce the dimensionality, which has significantly improved the computation speed. Finally, it is exhibited that the recognition performance with density-based clustering is superior to conventional algorithms under the condition of large azimuth angle ranges and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).