IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 5070: Gender Difference in General Self-Efficacy among Young-Old Elderly Aged 60-74 in Rural Shandong China: A Cross-Sectional Survey (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Objective: This study aims to explore the determinants of general self-efficacy (GSE) among young-old elderly, with focus on examining the gender difference of general self-efficacy. Methods: Data were collected from the 2017 Survey of the Shandong Elderly Family Health Service, which was conducted by Shandong University. T-test was used to examine the gender difference in GSE. Univariate models and adjusted multiple linear regression model were used to explore the determinants of GSE by gender. Results: The females’ GSE score was lower than that of male participants (26.1 ± 8.1 vs. 28.7 ± 7.7), and there was a significant gender difference (t = 10.877, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression model showed that some factors are common significant determinants of GSE such as age, education level, activity of daily living (ADL), self-rated health, mental health, personality, and whether participants have intimate friends and interpersonal relationships. Hypertension and frequent communication with children were specific determinants of GSE among male young-old. Personal income was a specific determinant of female participants. Conclusion: Some influencing factors of GSE in both genders are identical, the others are different. More attention should be paid for the poor young-old females, young-old males with hypertension, and disabled young-old people.