Proper nutrition plays a major role in preventing diseases and, therefore, nutritional interventions constitute crucial strategies in the field of Public Health. Nutrigenomics and nutriproteomics are arising from the integration of nutritional, genomics and proteomics specialties in the era of postgenomics medicine. In particular, nutrigenomics and nutriproteomics focus on the interaction between nutrients and the human genome and proteome, respectively, providing insights into the role of diet in carcinogenesis. Further omics disciplines, like metabonomics, interactomics and microbiomics, are expected to provide a better understanding of nutrition and its underlying factors. These fields represent an unprecedented opportunity for the development of personalized diets in women at risk of developing breast cancer.