The European Union (EU) countries, as one of the most economically developed regions in the world, are taking increasingly decisive actions to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the natural environment. This can be exemplified by a new climate strategy referred to as “The European Green Deal”. Its basic assumption is that the EU countries will have achieved climate neutrality by 2050. To do so, it is necessary to make an energy transition involving the widest possible use of renewable energy sources (RES) for energy production. However, activities in this area should be preceded by analyses due to the large diversity of the EU countries in terms of economic development, the number of inhabitants and their wealth as well as geographical location and area. The results of such analyses should support the implementation of adopted strategies. In order to assess the current state of the energy sector in the EU and indicate future directions of activities, research was carried out to analyze the structure and volume of energy production from RES in the EU countries. The aim of the study was to divide the EU countries into similar groups by the structure and volume of energy production from RES. This production was compared with the number of inhabitants of each EU country, its area and the value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This approach allows a new and broader view of the structure of energy production from RES and creates an opportunity to take into account additional factors when developing and implementing new climate strategies. The k-means algorithm was used for the analysis. The presented analyses and obtained results constitute a new approach to studying the diversified energy market in the EU. The results should be used for the development of a common energy and climate policy and economic integration of the EU countries.