Patients on dialysis are frequently administered high doses of potassium binders such as calcium polystyrene sulfonate (CPS) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), which exacerbate constipation. Here, we compare the degree of constipation induced by CPS and SPS using a loperamide-induced constipation model to identify the safer potassium binder. Constipation model was created by twice-daily intraperitoneal administration (ip) of loperamide hydrochloride (Lop; 1 mg/kg body weight) in rats for 3 days. Rats were assigned to a control group, Lop group, Lop + CPS group or Lop + SPS group, and a crossover comparative study was performed. Defecation status (number of feces, feces wet weight, fecal water content and gastrointestinal transit time (GTT)) was evaluated. In the Lop + CPS group, GTT was significantly longer, and fecal water content was reduced. In the Lop + SPS group—although the fecal water content and GTT were unaffected—the number of fecal pellets and the fecal wet weight improved. Thus, SPS was less likely to cause constipation exacerbation than CPS. Considering the high frequency of constipation in dialysis patients with hyperkalemia, preferentially administering SPS over CPS may prevent constipation exacerbation.