Cardiovascular complications observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by tryptophan-derived uremic toxins—mainly indoxyl sulfate (IS). AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor originally characterized as a receptor of xenobiotics involved in detoxification. The aim of this study was to determine the role of AhR in a CKD mouse model based on an adenine diet. Wild-type (WT) and AhR−/− mice were fed by alternating an adenine-enriched diet and a regular diet for 6 weeks. Our results showed an increased mortality rate of AhR−/− males. AhR−/− females survived and developed a less severe renal insufficiency that WT mice, reflected by urea, creatinine, and IS measurement in serum. The protective effect was related to a decrease of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression, an attenuation of tubular injury, and a decrease of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystal deposition in the kidneys of AhR−/− mice. These mice expressed low levels of xanthine dehydrogenase, which oxidizes adenine into 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, and low levels of the IS metabolism enzymes. In conclusion, the CKD model of adenine diet is not suitable for AhR knockout mice when studying the role of this transcription factor in cardiovascular complications, as observed in human CKD.