IJMS, Vol. 21, Pages 2510: Anemarrhenae asphodeloides rhizoma Extract Enriched in Mangiferin Protects PC12 Cells against a Neurotoxic Agent-3-Nitropropionic Acid (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
The rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a brain function-improving herb, is a promising source of neuroprotective substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of xanthones from A. asphodeloides rhizomes on the PC12 cell line exposed to the neurotoxic agent—3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). The xanthone-enriched fraction of the ethanolic extract of A. asphodeloides (abbreviated from now on as XF, for the Xanthone Fraction), rich in polyphenolic xanthone glycosides, in concentrations from 5 to 100 μg/mL, and 3-NP in concentrations from 2.5 to 15 mM, were examined. After 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure of cells to various combinations of 3-NP and XF, the MTT viability assay was performed and morphological changes were estimated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The obtained results showed a significant increase in the number of cells surviving after treatment with XF with exposure to neurotoxic 3-NP and decreased morphological changes in PC12 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. The most effective protective action was observed when PC12 cells were pre-incubated with the XF. This effect may contribute to the traditional indications of this herb for neurological and cognitive complaints. However, a significant cytotoxicity observed at higher XF concentrations (over 10 µg/mL) and longer incubation time (48 h) requires caution in future research and thorough investigation into potential adverse effects.