Over the past several centuries, the iron industry played a central role in the economy of Sweden and much of northern Europe. A crucial component of iron manufacturing was the production of charcoal, which was often created in charcoal piles. These features are visible in LiDAR (light detection and ranging) datasets. These charcoal piles vary in their morphology by region, and training data for some feature types are severely lacking. Here, we investigate the potential for machine automation to aid archaeologists in recording charcoal piles with limited training data availability in a forested region of Jönköping County, Sweden. We first use hydrological depression algorithms to conduct a preliminary assessment of the study region and compile suitable training data for charcoal production sites. Then, we use these datasets to train a series of RetinaNet deep learning models, which are less computationally expensive than many popular deep learning architectures (e.g., R-CNNs), allowing for greater usability. Together, our results demonstrate how charcoal piles can be automatically extracted from LiDAR datasets, which has great implications for improving our understanding of the long-term environmental impact of the iron industry across Northern Europe. Furthermore, our workflow for developing and implementing deep learning models for archaeological research can expand the use of such methods to regions that lack suitable training data.