The cyclical proliferation of the wild fossorial rodent Arvicola terrestris scherman (ATS) is critical in mid-mountain ecosystems of several European countries. Our goal is to develop an immunocontraceptive vaccine to control their fertility, as a sustainable alternative to chemical poisons currently used. Indeed, these chemicals cause the death of ATS predators and animals sharing their ecosystem, and current laws progressively limit their use, making the development of a targeted vaccination strategy an interesting and efficient alternative. In order to identify species-specific sperm antigens, male and female ATS received subcutaneous injections of whole ATS spermatozoa to elicit an immune response. The analysis of the immune sera led to the identification of 120 immunogenic proteins of sperm cells. Of these, 15 were strictly sperm-specific and located in different regions of the male gamete. Some of these antigens are proteins involved in molecular events essential to the reproductive process, such as sperm–egg interaction, acrosomal reaction, or sperm motility. This approach not only identified a panel of immunogenic proteins from ATS sperm cells, but also demonstrated that some of these proteins trigger an immune response in both male and female ATS. These spermatic antigens are good candidates for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.