Radiation therapy (RT) recruits myeloid cells, leading to an immunosuppressive microenvironment that impedes its efficacy against tumors. Combination of immunotherapy with RT is a potential approach to reversing the immunosuppressive condition and enhancing tumor control after RT. This study aimed to assess the effects of local interleukin-12 (IL-12) therapy on improving the efficacy of RT in a murine prostate cancer model. Combined treatment effectively shrunk the radioresistant tumors by inducing a T helper-1 immune response and influx of CD8+ T cells. It also delayed the radiation-induced vascular damage accompanied by increased α-smooth muscle actin-positive pericyte coverage and blood perfusion. Moreover, RT significantly reduced the IL-12-induced levels of alanine aminotransferase in blood. However, it did not further improve the IL-12-induced anti-tumor effect on distant tumors. Upregulated expression of T-cell exhaustion-associated genes was found in tumors treated with IL-12 only and combined treatment, suggesting that T-cell exhaustion is potentially correlated with tumor relapse in combined treatment. In conclusion, this study illustrated that combination of radiation and local IL-12 therapy enhanced the host immune response and promoted vascular maturation and function. Furthermore, combination treatment was associated with less systemic toxicity than IL-12 alone, providing a potential option for tumor therapy in clinical settings.