IJMS, Vol. 22, Pages 11105: Unraveling Protein Interactions between the Temperate Virus Bam35 and Its Bacillus Host Using an Integrative Yeast Two Hybrid–High Throughput Sequencing Approach (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Bacillus virus Bam35 is the model Betatectivirus and member of the family Tectiviridae, which is composed of tailless, icosahedral, and membrane-containing bacteriophages. Interest in these viruses has greatly increased in recent years as they are thought to be an evolutionary link between diverse groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses. Additionally, betatectiviruses infect bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, which are known for their applications in industry and notorious since it contains many pathogens. Here, we present the first protein–protein interactions (PPIs) network for a tectivirus–host system by studying the Bam35–Bacillus thuringiensis model using a novel approach that integrates the traditional yeast two-hybrid system and high-throughput sequencing (Y2H-HTS). We generated and thoroughly analyzed a genomic library of Bam35′s host B. thuringiensis HER1410 and screened interactions with all the viral proteins using different combinations of bait–prey couples. Initial analysis of the raw data enabled the identification of over 4000 candidate interactions, which were sequentially filtered to produce 182 high-confidence interactions that were defined as part of the core virus–host interactome. Overall, host metabolism proteins and peptidases were particularly enriched within the detected interactions, distinguishing this host–phage system from the other reported host–phage PPIs. Our approach also suggested biological roles for several Bam35 proteins of unknown function, including the membrane structural protein P25, which may be a viral hub with a role in host membrane modification during viral particle morphogenesis. This work resulted in a better understanding of the Bam35–B. thuringiensis interaction at the molecular level and holds great potential for the generalization of the Y2H-HTS approach for other virus–host models.