IJERPH, Vol. 18, Pages 10852: Association between Dietary Patterns and Frailty Prevalence in Shanghai Suburban Elders: A Cross-Sectional Study (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Objective: To investigate the association between dietary patterns with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Chinese population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 780 Shanghai suburban elders aged 65–74 in 2019. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to a priori dietary patterns, including the Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and Mediterranean Diet (MD) were calculated. Three a posteriori dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, namely, “protein-rich”; “vegetables”; and “sugar, oil, and condiments”. Frailty was defined using the Fried frailty phenotype scale. Ordinal multiple logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between dietary patterns and frailty prevalence. Results: The prevalences of pre-frailty and frailty were 47.69% and 3.85%, respectively. Participants with a higher DASH score had a lower frailty prevalence in the sex- and age-adjusted models of the 780 subjects (OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94–0.99), p < 0.05). The association slightly strengthened in the multivariate adjusted model of the 555 subjects after excluding the participants with chronic diseases may influence frailty (OR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92–1.00), p < 0.05). High “protein-rich” dietary pattern scores were negatively associated with frailty prevalence in the multivariate adjusted model of the 780 subjects (OR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69–0.98), p < 0.05). The association attenuated in the sex- and age-adjusted model of the 555 subjects (OR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.69–1.00, p = 0.056). Conclusion: A better diet quality as characterized by DASH and “protein-rich” was associated with a reduced prevalence of frailty in Shanghai suburban elders. The correlation of CHEI, MD or a posteriori dietary patterns with the development of frailty in Chinese older people remains to be explored.