This work investigates the fuel energy and emission reductions possible with the hybridization of a Class 8 tractor-trailer. The truck tractor has two drive axles: one powered by an internal-combustion-engine-based powertrain (CP) and the other powered by an electric powertrain (EP) consisting of an electric drive system supplied by a battery pack, resulting in a through-the-road hybrid. The EP has two modes of operation depending on the direction of power flow: motoring/battery discharging and generating/battery recharging. Switched optimal control is used to select between the two modes of EP operation, and a recently developed distributed switched optimal control is applied. The control is distributed between the CP, the EP, and the vehicle motion operation components. Control-oriented, component-specific power flow models are set forth to describe the dynamics and algebraic relationships. Four different tractor-trailers are simulated: the original CP and three hybrids with engine sizes of 15 L, 11 L, and 7 L. Simulations are performed over a short test cycle and two regulatory driving cycles to compare the fuel use, total energy, and emissions. Results show that the hybrids have reduced fuel use, total energy, and emissions compared to the original CP; the reductions and reference velocity tracking error increases as the engine size is decreased. Particularly, fuel use is reduced by at least 4.1% under a charge sustaining operation and by 9.8% when the battery energy can be restored with an off-board charger at the end of the cycle.