Molecular alterations drive cancer initiation and evolution during development and in response to therapy. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly employed cancer treatment modalities, but radiobiologic approaches for personalizing therapy based on tumor biology and individual risks remain to be defined. In recent years, analysis of circulating nucleic acids has emerged as a non-invasive approach to leverage tumor molecular abnormalities as biomarkers of prognosis and treatment response. Here, we evaluate the roles of circulating tumor DNA and related analyses as powerful tools for precision radiotherapy. We highlight emerging work advancing liquid biopsies beyond biomarker studies into translational research investigating tumor clonal evolution and acquired resistance.