IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 1229: Effect of Porcine Whole Blood Protein Hydrolysate on Slow-Twitch Muscle Fiber Expression and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via the AMPK/SIRT1 Pathway (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of a variety of functionally different fiber types. Slow-twitch type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis promotes a shift towards more slow fibers. Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), regulates slow-twitch muscle fiber expression and mitochondrial function. The BCAA content is increased in porcine whole-blood protein hydrolysates (PWBPH) but the effect of PWBPH on muscle fiber type conversion is unknown. Supplementation with PWBPH (250 and 500 mg/kg for 5 weeks) increased time to exhaustion in the forced swimming test and the mass of the quadriceps femoris muscle but decreased the levels of blood markers of exercise-induced fatigue. PWBPH also promoted fast-twitch to slow-twitch muscle fiber conversion, elevated the levels of mitochondrial biogenesis markers (SIRT1, p-AMPK, PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM) and increased succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities in ICR mice. Similarly, PWBPH induced markers of slow-twitch muscle fibers and mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, AMPK and SIRT1 inhibition blocked the PWBPH-induced muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. These results indicate that PWBPH enhances exercise performance by promoting slow-twitch muscle fiber expression and mitochondrial function via the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.