Changes in the elastic characteristics of the railway subgrade have been determined using nonstop long-term (more than 50 days) train passage seismic observations. We examined the records of the broadband sensitive seismometer TC-120s in the low-frequency band (below 0.1 Hz) to obtain the subgrade response to various train passages and its relaxation after unloading. Analytical models of subgrade deformation by the train are proposed. When comparing models in the experiment, we showed that a lowpass filter (below 0.1 Hz) provides waveforms with parameters determined by the deformation properties of the soil. We carried out statistical processing of 1600 train seismic records and determined parameters characterizing the subgrade reaction to the vibration effects created by trains in the ultra-low-frequency range. Therefore, we can use these parameters to monitor after daily averaging and weekly smoothing. When observing the spring thawing of the soil, we considered the sensitivity of seismic monitoring using heavy vehicle vibrations, particularly changes in the soil state properties under a rise in ambient temperature. The presented observations can be used for seismic monitoring technology at an early stage of hazardous processes in the subgrade.