Chlorophytum genus has been extensively studied due to its diverse biological activities. We evaluated the methanolic extract of leaves of Chlorophytum comosum (Green type) (Thunb.) Jacques, the species that is less studied compared to C. borivilianum. The aim was to identify phytoconstituents of the methanolic extract of leaves of C. comosum and biological properties of its different fractions. Water fraction was analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds belonging to different chemical classes were identified in the methanolic extract of leaves of C. comosum (Green type) (Thunb.) Jacques. In addition to several fatty acids, isoprenoid and steroid compounds were found among the most abundant constituents. One of the identified compounds, 4′-methylphenyl-1C-sulfonyl-β-D-galactoside, was not detected earlier in Chlorophytum extracts. The water fraction was toxic to HeLa cells but not to Vero cells. Our data demonstrate that methanolic extract of leaves of C. comosum can be a valuable source of bioactive constituents. The water fraction of the extract exhibited promising antitumor potential based on a high ratio of HeLa vs. Vero cytotoxicity.