Previous studies have shown that dust aerosols may accelerate the melting of snow and glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau. To investigate the vertical structure of dust aerosols, we conducted a ground-based observation by using multi-wavelength polarization lidar which is designed for continuous network measurements. In this study, we used the lidar observation from September to October 2020 at the Ruoqiang site (39.0°N, 88.2°E; 894 m ASL), located at the junction of the Taklimakan Desert–Tibetan Plateau. Our results showed that dust aerosols can be lifted up to 5 km from the ground, which is comparable with the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau in autumn with a mass concentration of 400–900 μg m−3. Moreover, the particle depolarization ratio (PDR) of the lifted dust aerosols at 532 nm and 355 nm are 0.34 ± 0.03 and 0.25 ± 0.04, respectively, indicating the high degree of non-sphericity in shape. In addition, extinction-related Ångström exponents are very small (0.11 ± 0.24), implying the large values in size. Based on ground-based lidar observation, this study proved that coarse non-spherical Taklimakan dust with high concentration can be transported to the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting its possible impacts on the regional climate and ecosystem.