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RSS FeedsEnergies, Vol. 15, Pages 3605: Study on Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Supercritical Liquid Hydrogen in a U-Type Tube inside a Moderator (Energies)

 
 

14 may 2022 14:39:03

 
Energies, Vol. 15, Pages 3605: Study on Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Supercritical Liquid Hydrogen in a U-Type Tube inside a Moderator (Energies)
 


The flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical fluid in a U-tube have an important influence on the safe operation of a moderator, and the variation of gravity direction is suitable for special working conditions of the moderator. In this study, the three-dimensional turbulence flow and heat transfers of supercritical liquid hydrogen in a U-tube were investigated at an Re number ranging from 16,425 to 54,750 under constant heat flux (q = 80 kW/m2). The total length of the U-tube was 1725 mm, which had an entrance length L/D of 23, with the inner diameter and wall thickness of D × δ = 10 × 2 mm. The finite volume method was adopted, and the grid independence was verified by the grid convergence index (GCI). The calculation results of three turbulence models (SST k-w, RNG k-ε, Standard k-ε) were compared with the corresponding experimental data to obtain the turbulence model with the smallest error. The convective heat transfer characteristics with different values of heat flux (q = 30 kW/m2~100 kW/m2), mass flow (G = 3 g/s~10 g/s), and gravity (gx, gy, gz) were compared. Meanwhile, the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical liquid and conventional liquid hydrogen were compared. The results show that Nu increased from 5 g/s to 10 g/s by 56.6%, and mass flow rate had a greater impact on the variation of Nu; when gravity direction was consistent with the flow direction of liquid hydrogen (gxdirection), the Nu number inside the channel was 4.21% and 5.56% higher than that in gy and gz direction, respectively. Supercritical liquid hydrogen has a stronger heat transfer ability than conventional liquid hydrogen, of which the Nu number is 16.7% higher. This study can provide useful guidance for the design of flow and heat transfer of supercritical liquid hydrogen in a U-tube and its application in moderators. Furthermore, it provides reference technical values for thermal safety and thermal management of the target station to ensure its safe and stable operation.


 
84 viewsCategory: Biophysics, Biotechnology, Physics
 
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