Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), classified primarily between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a collection of chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions that cause multiple complications because of systemic alterations in the immune response. One major player is microRNA (miRNA), which is found to be associated with multiple pathways in mediating inflammation, especially those of a chronic nature in IBD, as well as irritable bowel syndrome. Although there have been studies linking miRNA alterations in IBD, even differentiating Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, this review focuses mainly on how miRNAs cause and mechanistically influence the pathologic complications of IBD. In addition to its role in the well-known progression towards colorectal cancer, we also emphasize how miRNA manifests the many extraintestinal complications in IBD such as cardiovascular diseases; neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety disorders; and others, including various musculoskeletal, dermatologic, ocular, and hepatobiliary complications. We conclude through a description of its potential use in bettering diagnostics and the future treatment of IBD and its systemic symptoms.