In this paper, we report a wind energy harvesting system for Internet of Things (IoT)-based environment monitoring (e.g., temperature and humidity, etc.) for potential agricultural applications. A wind-driven electromagnetic energy harvester using rotational magnet pole-pairs (rotor) with a back-iron shield was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and characterized. Our analysis (via finite element method magnetic simulations) shows that a back-iron shield enhances the magnetic flux density on the front side of a rotor where the series connected coils interact and convert the captured mechanical energy (wind energy) into electrical energy by means of electromagnetic induction. A prototype energy harvester was fabricated and tested under various wind speeds. A custom power management circuit was also designed, manufactured, and successfully implemented in real-time environmental monitoring. The experimental results show that the harvester can generate a maximum average power of 1.02 mW and maximum power efficiency of 73% (with power management circuit) while operated at 4.5 m/s wind speed. The system-level demonstration shows that this wind-driven energy harvesting system is capable of powering a commercial wireless sensor that transmits temperature and humidity data to a smartphone for more than 200 min after charging its battery for only 10 min. The experimental results indicate that the proposed wind-driven energy harvesting system can potentially be implemented in energetically autonomous IoT for smart agriculture applications.