In this study, we investigate the most severe East Asian dust storm in the past decade that occurred on 14–16 March 2021 based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and a variety of site measurements and satellite retrievals. The dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, especially over Mongolia on March 14, are the dominant sources of this intense dust event. The maximal hourly accumulated dust emissions over Mongolian and Chinese areas reached 1490.18 kt at 07:00 UTC on 14 March and 821.70 kt at 2:00 UTC on 15 March, respectively. During this dust event, the accumulated dust emissions in coarse modes (i.e., bin 4 and bin 5) account for 64.1% of the total dust emission mass, and the accumulated dust emissions in fine modes (i.e., bin 1) are the least, accounting for 7.6% of the total dust emission mass. Because the coarse mode bins of dust dominate the emissions, the downwind transported coarse mode particles can affect the North China Plain, while the fine particles can only affect the desert source and its surrounding regions such as the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. Due to the dust emissions and the dust transport path, the high AOD areas are located in the Gobi Desert and Northwest China and the vertical spatial distributions of aerosol extinction coefficients have the same characteristics. We also found the model drawback of overestimating simulated wind speeds, which leads to the overestimations of dust emissions and concentrations, indicating the urgency of improving the simulated wind field.