Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious complication of cirrhosis that causes neuropsychiatric problems, such as cognitive dysfunction and movement disorders. The link between the microbiota and the host plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HE. The link between the gut microbiome and disease can be positively utilized not only in the diagnosis area of HE but also in the treatment area. Probiotics and prebiotics aim to resolve gut dysbiosis and increase beneficial microbial taxa, while fecal microbiota transplantation aims to address gut dysbiosis through transplantation (FMT) of the gut microbiome from healthy donors. Antibiotics, such as rifaximin, aim to improve cognitive function and hyperammonemia by targeting harmful taxa. Current treatment regimens for HE have achieved some success in treatment by targeting the gut microbiota, however, are still accompanied by limitations and problems. A focused approach should be placed on the establishment of personalized trial designs and therapies for the improvement of future care. This narrative review identifies factors negatively influencing the gut–hepatic–brain axis leading to HE in cirrhosis and explores their relationship with the gut microbiome. We also focused on the evaluation of reported clinical studies on the management and improvement of HE patients with a particular focus on microbiome-targeted therapy.