Molecules, Vol. 27, Pages 5144: Valorization of the Photo-Protective Potential of the Phytochemically Standardized Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Extract in UVA-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblasts (Molecules)
Leaves of Olea europaea are a by-product of the olive oil industry and a dietary supplement with acknowledged antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity but underestimated photoprotective potential. We investigated the protective effects of the LC-PDA-MS/MS standardized ethanol-water extract of olive leaves (OLE), containing 26.2% total phenols and 22.2% oleuropein, with underlying mechanisms against the UVA-induced oxidative damage in human dermal fibroblasts. Hs68 cells were pre-treated (24 h) with OLE (2.5–25 μg/mL) or the reference antioxidants, quercetin and ascorbic acid (25 μg/mL), followed by irradiation (8 J/cm2). OLE significantly reduced the UVA-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and increased the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) expression and post-radiation viability of fibroblasts by inhibiting their apoptosis. Both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways appeared to be inhibited by OLE, but the activity of caspase 9 was the most reduced. We hypothesized that the TrxR up-regulation by OLE could have prevented the UVA-induced apoptosis of Hs68 cells. In addition, a significant decrease in UVA-induced secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) was shown in human lymphocyte culture in response to OLE treatment. In summary, our results support the beneficial effect of OLE in an in vitro model and indicate its great potential for use in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry as a topical photoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent.