Global warming poses new challenges for insects to adapt to higher temperatures. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects and plays an important role in energy metabolism and stress resistance. The transmembrane transport of trehalose mainly depends on the trehalose transporter (TRET1). Plutella xylostella (L.) is a worldwide agricultural pest; however, the effects of the trehalose transport mechanism and trehalose distribution in tissues on the development, reproduction and temperature adaptation of P. xylostella have yet to be reported. In this study, PxTret1-like was cloned and analyzed regarding its expression pattern. It was found that the expression of PxTret1-like was affected by ambient temperature. The knockout mutation of PxTret1-like was generated using a CRISPR/Cas9 system by targeted knockout. The trehalose content and trehalase activity of mutant P. xylostella increased at different developmental stages. The trehalose content increased in the fat body of the fourth-instar P. xylostella, and decreased in the hemolymph, and there was no significant change in glucose in the fat body and hemolymph. Mutant strains of P. xylostella showed a significantly reduced survival rate, fecundity and ability to withstand extreme temperatures. The results showed that PxTret1-like could affect the development, reproduction and temperature adaptability of P. xylostella by regulating the trehalose content in the fat body and hemolymph.