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RSS FeedsIJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 9054: Neuroprotective and Regenerative Effects of Growth Hormone (GH) in the Embryonic Chicken Cerebral Pallium Exposed to Hypoxic–Ischemic (HI) Injury (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)

 
 

13 august 2022 10:24:18

 
IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 9054: Neuroprotective and Regenerative Effects of Growth Hormone (GH) in the Embryonic Chicken Cerebral Pallium Exposed to Hypoxic–Ischemic (HI) Injury (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
 


Prenatal hypoxic–ischemic (HI) injury inflicts severe damage on the developing brain provoked by a pathophysiological response that leads to neural structural lesions, synaptic loss, and neuronal death, which may result in a high risk of permanent neurological deficits or even newborn decease. It is known that growth hormone (GH) can act as a neurotrophic factor inducing neuroprotection, neurite growth, and synaptogenesis after HI injury. In this study we used the chicken embryo to develop both in vitro and in vivo models of prenatal HI injury in the cerebral pallium, which is the equivalent of brain cortex in mammals, to examine whether GH exerts neuroprotective and regenerative effects in this tissue and the putative mechanisms involved in these actions. For the in vitro experiments, pallial cell cultures obtained from chick embryos were incubated under HI conditions (<5% O2, 1 g/L glucose) for 24 h and treated with 10 nM GH, and then collected for analysis. For the in vivo experiments, chicken embryos (ED14) were injected in ovo with GH (2.25 µg), exposed to hypoxia (12% O2) for 6 h, and later the pallial tissue was obtained to perform the studies. Results show that GH exerted a clear anti-apoptotic effect and promoted cell survival and proliferation in HI-injured pallial neurons, in both in vitro and in vivo models. Neuroprotective actions of GH were associated with the activation of ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 signaling pathways. Remarkably, GH protected mature neurons that were particularly harmed by HI injury, but was also capable of stimulating neural precursors. In addition, GH stimulated restorative processes such as the number and length of neurite outgrowth and branching in HI-injured pallial neurons, and these effects were blocked by a specific GH antibody, thus indicating a direct action of GH. Furthermore, it was found that the local expression of several synaptogenic markers (NRXN1, NRXN3, GAP-43, and NLG1) and neurotrophic factors (GH, BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1, and BMP4) were increased after GH treatment during HI damage. Together, these results provide novel evidence supporting that GH exerts protective and restorative effects in brain pallium during prenatal HI injury, and these actions could be the result of a joint effect between GH and endogenous neurotrophic factors. Also, they encourage further research on the potential role of GH as a therapeutic complement in HI encephalopathy treatments.


 
61 viewsCategory: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology
 
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