Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can lead to ankylosis by secondary ossification of inflammatory lesions, with progressive disability and a significant impact on quality of life. It is also a risk factor for the occurrence of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mood disorders, osteoporosis, and malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent or decrease functional decline and to improve the patient’s prognosis. In respect of axSpA, there is an unmet need for biomarkers that can help to diagnose the disease, define disease activity and prognosis, and establish personalized treatment approaches. The aim of this review was to summarize the available information regarding the most promising biomarkers for axSpA. We classified and identified six core categories of biomarkers: (i) systemic markers of inflammation; (ii) molecules involved in bone homeostasis; (iii) HLA-B27 and newer genetic biomarkers; (iv) antibody-based biomarkers; (v) microbiome biomarkers; and (vi) miscellaneous biomarkers. Unfortunately, despite efforts to validate new biomarkers, few of them are used in clinical practice; however, we believe that these studies provide useful data that could aid in better disease management.