IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 11579: Discovery and In Vivo Efficacy of Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) Agonist 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-1-carboxamide Hydrochloride (AP163) for the Treatment of Psychotic Disorders (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Starting from a screening hit, a set of analogs was synthesized based on a 4-(2-aminoethyl)piperidine core not associated previously with trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) modulation in the literature. Several structure–activity relationship generalizations have been drawn from the observed data, some of which were corroborated by molecular modeling against the crystal structure of TAAR1. The four most active compounds (EC50 for TAAR1 agonistic activity ranging from 0.033 to 0.112 μM) were nominated for evaluation in vivo. The dopamine transporter knockout (DAT-KO) rat model of dopamine-dependent hyperlocomotion was used to evaluate compounds’ efficacy in vivo. Out of four compounds, only one compound (AP163) displayed a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in hyperlocomotion in DAT-KO rats. As such, compound AP163 represents a viable lead for further preclinical characterization as a potential novel treatment option for disorders associated with increased dopaminergic function, such as schizophrenia.