Farmers working inside greenhouses during summer are at risk of heat-related illness. In this study, we compared the dry-bulb temperatures (DTs) and the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index inside and outside greenhouses. We then determined the criteria for appropriate working and resting times inside greenhouses. The measurements were performed during the hottest period in 2020 and 2021 for two greenhouses, representative of those commonly found in rural areas. A direct-reading WBGT index meter was used for these measurements, and Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) data were used to obtain regional DT data. DTs inside the greenhouses were significantly higher than the ASOS DTs (p < 0.001). In addition, the August WBGT index inside was significantly higher than that outside the greenhouses (p < 0.001). We found that the temperature during the period between 08:00 and 19:00 exceeded the international threshold of 28 °C for heat-acclimatized workers performing moderate-intensity work, above which heat stress becomes a concern. Our results revealed that the thermal index inside can be significantly higher than that found outside greenhouses. Therefore, when work is required inside greenhouses during the summer, stricter standards and safety measures should be considered.