Remote Sensing, Vol. 14, Pages 4901: Improving the Modeling of Sea Surface Currents in the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea Using Data Assimilation of Satellite Altimetry and Hydrographic Observations (Remote Sensing)
Sea surface currents are often modeled using numerical models without adequately addressing the issue of model calibration at the regional scale. The aim of this study is to calibrate the MIKE 21 numerical ocean model for the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea to improve the sea surface currents obtained from the model. The calibration was performed through data assimilation of the model with altimetry and hydrographic observations using variational data assimilation, where the weights of the objective functions were defined based on the type of observations and optimized using metaheuristic optimization methods. According to the results, the calibration of the model generally led the model results closer to the observations. This was reflected in an improvement of about 0.09 m/s in the obtained sea surface currents. It also allowed for more accurate evaluations of model parameters, such as Smagorinsky and Manning coefficients. Moreover, the root mean square error values between the satellite altimetry observations at control stations and the assimilated model varied between 0.058 and 0.085 m. We further showed that the kinetic energy produced by sea surface currents could be used for generating electricity in the Oman Sea and near Jask harbor.