Multiple in vitro and in vivo model investigations have suggested a broad spectrum of potential mechanisms by which plant/macrofungi-derived non-starch polysaccharides may play a role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This article reviews the in vivo and in vitro evidence of different plant-derived polysaccharides for IBD therapy. Their underlying mechanisms, particularly the molecular mechanisms associated with protective effects in the treatment and prevention of IDB, have been well summarized, including anti-inflammatory, epithelial barrier repair, and the regulation of intestinal flora. Emerging studies have observed the potent role of probiotics in IBD, particularly its ability to modulate gut microbiota, a well-known key factor for IBD. In summary, plant/macrofungi-derived polysaccharides have the potential to be a promising agent for the adjuvant treatment and prevention of IBD and will contribute to the design of well-designed clinical intervention trials that will ultimately improve the therapy of IBD.