Tornadoes are highly destructive small-scale extreme weather processes in the troposphere. The weather radar is one of the most effective remote sensing devices for the monitoring and early warning of tornadoes. The existing tornado detection algorithms based on radar data are unsupervised and have strict multi-altitude constraints, such as the tornado detection algorithm based on tornado vortex signatures (TDA-TVS), which may lead to high false alarm rates, and the performance of the detection algorithm is greatly affected by the radar data quality control algorithm. A novel TDA-RF algorithm based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm is proposed for real-time tornado identification of the S-band China new generation of Doppler weather radar (CINRAD-SA). The TDA-RF algorithm uses velocity features to identify tornadoes and adds features related to reflectivity and velocity spectrum width in radar level-II data. Historical CINRAD-SA tornado data from 2006–2015 are used to construct the tornado dataset and train the TDA-RF model. The performance of TDA-RF is evaluated using CINRAD-SA data from five tornadoes of 2016–2020 with enhanced Fujita(EF) scale ratings ranging from EF0 to EF4 and distances from 10 to 130 km to the radar. TDA-RF performs well overall with the probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), and critical success index (CSI) of 71%, 29%, and 55%, respectively. Moreover, the TDA-RF improves POD and CSI, and reduces FAR compared to the TDA-TVS. The maximum tornado early-warning time of TDA-RF is 17 min, and the average is 6 min; TDA-RF can provide classification probability according to the tornado generation and development process to facilitate tracking ability.