Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a severe condition characterized by systemic inflammation, which may lead to multiple organ failure, shock and death. SIRS is common in burn patients, pancreatitis and sepsis. SIRS is often accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis. However, the mechanism, role and details of microbiome alterations during the early phase of acute SIRS are not completely understood. The current study aimed to characterize the dynamic alterations of both the intestinal and respiratory microbiome at two timepoints during the early phase of acute SIRS (4 and 8 h after LPS) and link these to the host response in a mouse model of a LPS-induced lethal SIRS. Acute SIRS had no effect on the microbiome in the large intestine but induced a rapid dysbiosis in the small intestine, which resembled the microbiome alterations commonly observed in SIRS patients. Later in the disease progression, a dysbiosis of the respiratory microbiome was observed, which was associated with the MMP9 expression in the lungs. Although similar bacteria were increased in both the lung and the small intestine, no evidence for a gut-lung translocation was observed. Gut dysbiosis is commonly observed in diseases involving inflammation in the gut. However, whether the inflammatory response associated with SIRS and sepsis can directly cause gut dysbiosis was still unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that a LPS-induced SIRS can directly cause dysbiosis of the small intestinal and respiratory microbiome.