Recent animal experiments suggested that centrally transported botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) might reduce an abnormal muscle tone, though with an unknown contribution to the dominant peripheral muscular effect observed clinically. Herein, we examined if late BoNT-A antispastic actions persist due to possible central toxin actions in rats. The early effect of intramuscular (i.m.) BoNT-A (5, 2 and 1 U/kg) on a reversible tetanus toxin (TeNT)-induced calf muscle spasm was examined 7 d post-TeNT and later during recovery from flaccid paralysis (TeNT reinjected on day 49 post-BoNT-A). Lumbar intrathecal (i.t.) BoNT-A–neutralizing antiserum was used to discriminate the transcytosis-dependent central toxin action of 5 U/kg BoNT-A. BoNT-A-truncated synaptosomal-associated protein 25 immunoreactivity was examined in the muscles and spinal cord at day 71 post-BoNT-A. All doses (5, 2 and 1 U/kg) induced similar antispastic actions in the early period (days 1–14) post-BoNT-A. After repeated TeNT, only the higher two doses prevented the muscle spasm and associated locomotor deficit. Central trans-synaptic activity contributed to the late antispastic effect of 5 U/kg BoNT-A. Ongoing BoNT-A enzymatic activity was present in both injected muscle and the spinal cord. These observations suggest that the treatment duration in sustained or intermittent muscular hyperactivity might be maintained by higher doses and combined peripheral and central BoNT-A action.