Patulin (PAT) is a common mycotoxin in the food industry, and is found in apple products in particular. Consumption of food or feed contaminated with PAT can cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans and animals. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM1287 is a probiotic strain that effectively degrades PAT in PBS and food systems. In this study, it was found that the concentration of PAT (50 mg/L) in MRS medium decreased by 85.09% during the first stages of CCFM1287 growth, and this change was consistent with the first−order degradation kinetic model. Meanwhile, the regulation of oxidative stress by L. plantarum CCFM1287 in response to PAT exposure and metabolic changes that occur during PAT degradation were investigated. The degree of intracellular damage was attenuated after 16 h of exposure compared to 8 h. Meanwhile, metabolomic data showed that 30 and 29 significantly different metabolites were screened intracellularly in the strain after 8 h and 16 h of PAT stress at 50 mg/L, respectively. The results of pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the purine metabolic pathway was significantly enriched at both 8 h and 16 h. However, as is consistent with the performance of the antioxidant system, the changes in Lactiplantibacillus diminished with increasing time of PAT exposure. Therefore, this study helps to further explain the mechanism of PAT degradation by L. plantarum CCFM1287.