IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 11659: Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products Promotes Activation of Alveolar Macrophages through the NLRP3 Inflammasome/TXNIP Axis in Acute Lung Injury (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
The roles of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)-dependent mechanisms of NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-driven macrophage activation during acute lung injury are underinvestigated. Cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with a RAGE agonist (S100A12), with or without a RAGE antagonist; cytokine release and intracytoplasmic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed in response to small interfering RNA knockdowns of TXNIP and NLRP3. Lung expressions of TXNIP and NLRP3 and alveolar levels of IL-1β and S100A12 were measured in mice after acid-induced lung injury, with or without administration of RAGE inhibitors. Alveolar macrophages from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and from mechanically ventilated controls were analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In vitro, RAGE promoted cytokine release and ROS production in macrophages and upregulated NLRP3 and TXNIP mRNA expression in response to S100A12. TXNIP inhibition downregulated NLRP3 gene expression and RAGE-mediated release of IL-1β by macrophages in vitro. In vivo, RAGE, NLRP3 and TXNIP lung expressions were upregulated during experimental acute lung injury, a phenomenon being reversed by RAGE inhibition. The numbers of cells expressing RAGE, NLRP3 and TXNIP among a specific subpopulation of CD16+CD14+CD206- (“pro-inflammatory”) alveolar macrophages were higher in patients with lung injury. This study provides a novel proof-of-concept of complex RAGE–TXNIP–NLRP3 interactions during macrophage activation in acute lung injury.