Pharmaceuticals, Vol. 15, Pages 1221: Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Essential Oils Isolated from the Leaves of Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia absinthium (Pharmaceuticals)
The current studies were focused on the phytochemical profiling of two local wild Artemisia species, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia absinthium leaves` essential oils, extracted via the hydro distillation method along with evaluation of their antioxidant as well as antimicrobial effects. The constituents of EOs were identified using a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) technique. A total of 25 compounds in A. scoparia essential oil (EOAS) were identified, and 14 compounds with percentage abundance of >1% were tabulated, the major being tocopherol derivatives (47.55%). A total of nine compounds in Artemisia absinthium essential oil (EOAA) were enlisted (% age >1%), the majority being oleic acid derivatives (41.45%). Strong antioxidant effects were pronounced by the EOAS in DPPH (IC50 = 285 ± 0.82 µg/mL) and in ABTS (IC50 = 295 ± 0.32 µg/mL) free radical scavenging assays. Both the EOs remained potent in inhibiting the growth of bacterial species; Escherichia coli (55–70%) and Shigella flexneri (60–75%) however remained moderately effective against Bacillus subtilis as well as Staphylococcus aureus. Both EOAS and EOAA strongly inhibited the growth of the tested fungal species, especially Aspergillus species (up to 70%). The oils showed anti-cholinesterase potential by inhibiting both Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; IC50 = 30 ± 0.04 µg/mL (EOAS), 32 ± 0.05 µg/mL (EOAA) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; IC50 = 34 ± 0.07 µg/mL (EOAS), 36 ± 0.03 µg/mL (EOAA). In conclusion, the essential oils of A. scoparia and A. absinthium are promising antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticholinergic agents with a different phytochemical composition herein reported for the first time.