Weak and transient protein interactions are involved in dynamic biological responses and are an important research subject; however, methods to elucidate such interactions are lacking. Proximity labeling is a promising technique for labeling transient ligand–binding proteins and protein–protein interaction partners of analytes via an irreversible covalent bond. Expanding chemical tools for proximity labeling is required to analyze the interactome. We developed several photocatalytic proximity-labeling reactions mediated by two different mechanisms. We found that numerous dye molecules can function as catalysts for protein labeling. We also identified catalysts that selectively modify tyrosine and histidine residues and evaluated their mechanisms. Model experiments using HaloTag were performed to demonstrate photocatalytic proximity labeling. We found that both ATTO465, which catalyzes labeling by a single electron transfer, and BODIPY, which catalyzes labeling by singlet oxygen, catalyze proximity labeling in cells.