Brunfelsia grandiflora is an ancient plant widely used for its promising medicinal properties, although little explored scientifically. Despite being a rich source of phenolic compounds responsible in part for the proven anti-inflammatory activity, its characterization has not been carried out to date. The present work deals with the exhaustive identification and quantification of its phenolic fraction, along with its antioxidant activity. Decoction resulting from the bark as fine powder was filtered and lyophilized, and polyphenols were extracted from the resulting product by aqueous-organic solvents. Seventy-nine polyphenols were identified using LC-MSn. Hydroxycinnamates was the most abundant group of compounds (up to 66.8%), followed by hydroxycoumarins (15.5%), lignans (6.1%), flavonols (5.7%), phenolic simples (3.1), gallates (2.3%), flavanols (0.3%), and flavanones (0.2%). About 64% of the characterized phenols were in their glycosylated forms. The quantification of these phytochemicals by LC-QToF showed that this medicinal plant contained 2014.71 mg of phenolic compounds in 100 g dry matter, which evidences a great antioxidant potency determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. Therefore, Brunfelsia grandiflora represents an important source of polyphenols which supports its therapeutic properties scientifically proven.