Marine Drugs, Vol. 20, Pages 631: In Vivo Anticoagulant and Antithrombic Activity of Depolymerized Glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus and Dynamic Effect–Exposure Relationship in Rat Plasma (Marine Drugs)
Glycosaminoglycan from Apostichopus japonicus (AHG) and its depolymerized fragments (DAHGs) are anticoagulant fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the anticoagulant and antithrombic activity of AHG and DAHGs, as well as reveal the dynamic relationship between exposure and effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that AHG100 (Mw~100 kDa), DAHG50 (Mw~50 kDa), and DAHG10 (Mw~10 kDa) exhibited potent anticoagulant activity by inhibiting intrinsic factor Xase complex (FXase) as well as antithrombin-dependent factor IIa (FIIa) and factor Xa (FXa). These glycosaminoglycans markedly prevented thrombosis formation and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose- and molecular weight-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The further bleeding time measurement indicated that DAHG10 exhibited obviously lower hemorrhage risks than native AHG100. Following oral administration, DAHG10 could be absorbed into blood, further dose-dependently prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) as well as inhibiting FXa and FIIa partially through FXase. Anticoagulant activity was positively associated with plasma concentration following oral administration of DAHG10. Our study proposed a new point of view to understand the correlation between effects and exposure of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate as an effective and safe oral antithrombotic agent.