A number of bacteria that colonize the human body produce toxins and effectors that cause changes in the eukaryotic cell cycle—cyclomodulins and low-molecular-weight compounds such as butyrate, lactic acid, and secondary bile acids. Cyclomodulins and metabolites are necessary for bacteria as adaptation factors—which are influenced by direct selection—to the ecological niches of the host. In the process of establishing two-way communication with the macroorganism, these compounds cause limited damage to the host, despite their ability to disrupt key processes in eukaryotic cells, which can lead to pathological changes. Possible negative consequences of cyclomodulin and metabolite actions include their potential role in carcinogenesis, in particular, with the ability to cause DNA damage, increase genome instability, and interfere with cancer-associated regulatory pathways. In this review, we aim to examine cyclomodulins and bacterial metabolites as important factors in bacterial survival and interaction with the host organism to show their heterogeneous effect on oncogenesis depending on the surrounding microenvironment, pathological conditions, and host genetic background.