IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 15784: Effects of BPZ, BPC, BPF, and BPS Exposure on Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Accumulation, Oxidative Stress, and Gene Expression (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
As substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol analogs (BPs) have been found to cause endocrine disorders and induce toxic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) to zebrafish. Five-month-old zebrafish were exposed to 1/100 LC50, 1/50 LC50, and 1/10 LC50 of BPZ, BPC, BPF, and BPS for 13 days, respectively. Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, and related mRNA expression in zebrafish tissues were measured on days 1, 7, and 13. After exposure, the four kinds of BPs all resulted in the accumulation of concentration and lipid peroxidation in zebrafish tissues to varying degrees. BPZ and BPC had the highest bioaccumulation level and had the greatest influence on malonic dialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and the content of glutathione (GSH) in zebrafish tissues were also affected at different levels. However, the enzyme activities of SOD and POD were inactivated in zebrafish exposed to a high concentration of BPC. Further studies showed that BPs exposure down-regulated the transcription level of sod but up-regulated the relative expression levels of cat and gpx. The mRNA relative expression level of erα was not significantly changed, while the mRNA relative expression level of erβ1 was significantly down-regulated except under BPS exposure. These results indicate that BPZ, BPC, and BPF significantly affect the expression level of the estrogen receptor (ER) in zebrafish tissues. Overall, the results suggest that exposure to waterborne BPs can cause severe oxidative stress and tissue damage in adult zebrafish that is not sufficient to kill them after 13 days of waterborne exposure. The toxicity of BPs to organisms, therefore, should be further analyzed and evaluated.