The high-quality operation of a superheated steam temperature (SST) system is a core fact of the safety, economy, and stability of thermal power units. How to improve the control performance of an SST system under large-varying operating conditions is becoming a research hotspot. To solve this challenge, this paper proposes a proportional integral derivative (PID) control strategy based on integral gain scheduling. Based on the introduction of the SST system and classical model under typical operating conditions, the control difficulties of the SST system are analyzed theoretically. Then, a PID control strategy, based on integral gain scheduling, is introduced for the cascade control structure, and the stability of the proposed control strategy is analyzed by calculating the PID stability region. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified under nominal and uncertain conditions, where the proposed method could obtain satisfactory tracking and disturbance rejection control performance. Simulation results show the valuable application prospects of the proposed method.