Mitochondria play a central role in the survival or death of neuronal cells, and they are regulators of energy metabolism and cell death pathways. Many studies support the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Biatractylolide (BD) is a kind of internal symmetry double sesquiterpene novel ester compound isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Baizhu, has neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer’s disease. We developed a systematic pharmacological model based on chemical pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data to identify potential compounds and targets of Baizhu. The neuroprotective effects of BD in PC12 (rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells) and SH-SY5Y (human bone marrow neuroblastoma cells) were evaluated by in vitro experiments. Based on the predicted results, we selected 18 active compounds, which were associated with 20 potential targets and 22 signaling pathways. Compound-target, target-disease and target-pathway networks were constructed using Cytoscape 3.2.1. And verified by in vitro experiments that BD could inhibit Aβ by reducing oxidative stress and decreasing CytC release induced mPTP opening. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of BD as an anti-Alzheimer’s disease drug.