Bombyx batryticatus (BB) is an anticonvulsant animal medicine in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acts on the central nervous system. This research aimed to study the anticonvulsant effects of different polarity fractions of extracts from BB and to explore the components conferring anticonvulsant activity. Materials and methods: Crude extracts of BB at 20 g/kg were divided into different polarity fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, water) and were administered to groups of mice before injecting pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) to induce convulsions. The animals were placed in chambers, and their behaviors were recorded for 30 min following the injection. Latency time, percent of protection, convulsion, convulsion rate, and convulsion score were determined for these mice. The compounds present in the different fractions were analyzed, and those from the fraction that conferred anticonvulsant activity were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) and molecular networking (MN). The chloroform extract fractions (B-C) clearly increased the seizure latency time and protection percentage and decreased the convulsion percentage compared to the control group. The anticonvulsant effect of other extract fractions was not significant. Our study shows that the chloroform extract fractions (B-C) of BB have a significant anticonvulsant effect. We also identified 17 compounds including lumichrome, pheophorbide A, and episyringaresinol 4′-O-beta-d-glucopyranose that were found for the first time. The results of this study may lay the groundwork for studying compounds derived from Bombyx batryticatus and their anticonvulsant effect.